Carlsbad Caverns National Park in the U.S., more than one decade hit the beauty of cavers and ordinary citizens. It is no coincidence, because this geological park has one of the most beautiful and longest caves in the world - Lechuguilla Cave. She kept her secret until 1986. Since its opening on the map was applied over 190 km of underground tunnels. When the first explorers came down the cave, they were not even aware of its true size.
It turned out that the walls of the cave are covered with the finest lace fragile crystals. These crystals are composed of gypsum, a mineral that is deposited in limestone. They are, literally, miles.
But Lechuguilla Cave walls in contrast to other underground caves are not corroded water - is the result of an entirely different process.
Deep into the cave, cavers found the whole gallery of unusual structures, for example, a 5-meter cones overgrown crystals. Gypsum crystals of Lechuguilla Cave made scientists wonder about the origin of the cave. They found that the limestone caves of corroded sulfuric acid. She ate, literally, miles of caves. As soon as sulfuric acid dissolves the limestone, gypsum is deposited - the basis of the fantastic interiors of Lechuguilla Cave. One hall is located at a depth of more than a mile from the surface just beyond description. It was called "Hall of gypsum chandeliers." He became the grand opening. Such bizarre six-meter crystals will not find more than one cave in the world.
A cave walls presented another surprise. It was found that the bacteria feed on extremophiles rock. The discovery of life that exists outside of any dependence on the sun once again prove how amazingly complex structure underworld.
The total length of all the halls of the cave is 210 kilometers. In addition, it is also the deepest cave in the continental United States.
Lechuguilla Cave, opened in 1986, is located in the center of the study, conducted by the National Park cavers. The depth of 490m it is that makes it the deepest limestone cave in the United States. It is closed to the public, and the exact location of the entrance is rather hidden information in order to preserve the cave untouched.
Before 1986 Lechuguilla Cave did not enjoy a special interest among the visitors of Carlsbad Caverns National Park. She had a 30-meter entrance aperture, which led to a depth of nearly 130m and ended in a dead-end termination. In the 1950s cavers heard wind roaring out of the rubble stones littered the bottom of the cave. Various experts have concluded that under the rubble stone cave is located corridor. Group of Colorado cavers gained permission from the National Park Service on the excavation in 1984. The discovery of large underground passage occurred May 26, 1986.
This was followed by one of the most exciting research one of the most famous caves of the planet. Since 1986, researchers have mapped over 180 miles of passages, found the cave at a depth of 490m. Lechuguilla Cave ranks 5th in the category of the longest cave in the world (third in the United States) and is the deepest in the United States. Cavers, drawn unexplored passages and unparalleled beauty come here from all over the world for its research.
Lechuguilla Cave is unusual not only because of its huge size. Cavers opened a large amount of gypsum and lemon-yellow sulfur deposits. Fantastic collection of rare speleotem (Speleotemy - mineral deposits that formed in caves as a result of drip water), some of them unique. Cave Lechuga surpasses her sister, Carlsbad Caverns, size, depth, and diversity speleotem, even though the latter has no such rooms, which could compete with the huge big room Carlsbad Caverns. Lechuguilla Cave is a real underground laboratory where geological processes can be studied on the basis of virtually untouched environment.
The cave is filled with all sorts of 'decorations' 6-foot gypsum chandeliers and incrustations, resembling hair and beard, a 5-meter high out of the straw ash, gidromagnezitnye balloons, cave pearls, a lot of amazing underwater formations and different U-and J-shaped passages and Loop.