16 most expensive materials in the world
Gold - is not the most precious substance in the world, in terms of grams. And do not even platinum. Look at the 16 most expensive materials at a price per gram. The substances are in reverse order, with an increase in value.
16 seats. Saffron. The only substance in this list, which is cheaper than gold. Cost: $ 11 per gram. Saffron is a flowering plant that can be used as a natural remedy virtually all ailments ranging from depression and ending with menstrual cycles.
The dried stigmas of the saffron flower seed (Crocus sativus L.) is used as a spice and food color orange. Perhaps there are properties allow to slow vision loss in older people. Currently, these properties the plants are just beginning to be studied.
15 seats. Gold. Cost: $ 56 per gram. In addition to the traditional use in the jewelry industry, gold can be used as an electrical conductor and to prevent corrosion.
Gold - a very heavy metal: the density of pure gold equal to 19 621 kg / m? (A ball of pure gold, 46 mm in diameter has a mass of 1 kg). Among the metals, the density takes the sixth place: after osmium, iridium, rhenium, platinum and plutonium. The high density of gold makes it easier to catch. The most common processes, such as, for example, washing at the gateway, can provide a very high degree of extraction of gold from the rocks flushed.
14 seats. Rhodium. Cost: about $ 58 per gram. Rhodium is mainly used in catalytic converters to reduce carbon emissions from cars. This metal does not play or what the biological role. The compounds of rhodium is quite rare in everyday life and their impact on the human body is not fully understood. Despite this, they are highly toxic and carcinogenic substances. The salts of rhodium are able to strongly stain human skin.
13 THE PLACE. Platinum. Cost: about $ 60 per gram. Platinum and its alloys are widely used for the production of jewelry. Every year the world jewelry industry consumes about 50 tons of platinum. At present in China are sold every year about 10 million products made of platinum with a total mass of about 25 tons.
Platinum, gold and silver - base metals, performing monetary functions. However, platinum was used for the manufacture of coins for several thousand years later, gold and silver. The world's first platinum coins were issued and in circulation in the Russian Empire from 1828 to 1845. The largest existing at the moment is a platinum nugget "Ural giant 'weighing 7 kg was 860.5 was discovered in 1904 at the Isovskom mine. Now kept in the Diamond Fund of the Kremlin.
12 seats. Methamphetamine. Cost: $ 100 per gram. The hydrochloride salt of methamphetamine produced in the USSR until the 1970s in the form of tablets of 3 mg methamphetamine called. Methamphetamine is a stimulant with an extremely high potential for additive, in connection with what has been widely circulated as a drug.
There have been cases of smoking crystal methamphetamine hydrochloride ("ice", "ice", "glass"), which for these purposes are sometimes specially prepared in the form of large crystals (as opposed to a fine powder). This is the most an additive method of application. With the right individual dosage methamphetamine decreases fatigue, causing a burst of energy, enhances mental and physical performance, reduces the need for sleep, it allows you to work around the clock, than the commonly used low-wage workers in Asia), and suppresses appetite.
11 seats. Rhino horn. $ 110 per gram. Horn is appreciated in Vietnam for his alleged ability to cure cancer. Its medical use also includes the treatment of fevers and other diseases. If you cut or damage the horn of a rhinoceros, an animal is not likely to survive, but in young animals it can grow back again. No one knows what its real function, while the females who have the horn is removed completely for some reason no longer take care of offspring.
Rhinos are endangered, and in the first place is due to huge demand for their horns. Horn of African rhinoceros is also very much appreciated in the Middle East, particularly in Yemen - both for medical reasons and for making the handles of traditional daggers. Since 1970, Yemen imported 67,050 kg of rhinoceros horns. With an average weight of 3 kg of a horn, this means that 22,350 were killed rhinos.
10 seats. Heroin. High-quality heroin can cost up to $ 130 per gram. This opioid is administered intravenously, snorted and smoked to change consciousness. According to data provided in the report of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) - end of 2009, Russia ranked first in the world in the number of heroin consumed. On average, the country consumed about 80 tons of the drug, accounting for 20% of the amount consumed by the world's heroin.
Physico-chemical properties: Pure substance - a white crystalline powder. The crude product was - bitter, grayish-brown powder in the form of small crystals with an unpleasant odor.
9th place. Cost: $ 215 per gram. Cocaine - methyl ester benzoylecgonine, an alkaloid tropanovogo series, has a local anesthetic and narcotic effect. Along with other alkaloids found in plants Eritroksilum kind, in particular, coca (Erythroxylum coca), Erythroxylum laetevirens, etc. Cocaine is the second largest, after the opiate "drug problem", drugs, abuse of which represents a significant socio-economic problem .
Currently, cocaine is most common as a drug. The popularity of the drug substance due to its stimulant effects, improved mood and increased efficiency. By itself, cocaine has no pronounced taste or odor, the organoleptic properties are provided in the existing mixture of impurities. World consumption of cocaine is estimated by experts at approximately 750 tons per year, with about one-third of this volume are from the USA, which are major consumers of this drug.
8 seats. LSD. In crystalline form, is worth about $ 3,000 per gram. Psychoactive substance in Russia legally classified as a narcotic. Like most of these surfactants, LSD does not cause physical dependence. LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light and chlorine (if it is a solution), but in the dark, with low humidity and low temperatures can be stored for many years. In pure form, LSD is colorless, odorless and slightly bitter taste.
Is used, usually by the oral route, for example, using a small piece of paper ("marks"), impregnated with a solution of the substance, or a piece of sugar, or in the form of gelatin. In the liquid form of LSD may be in the form of droplets (hence the English expression goes «drop the acid» - literally "drop acid") or injected intramuscular or intravenous injection.
7th place. Plutonium. Cost: about $ 4,000 per gram. Heavy radioactive metal brittle silver-white color. In the periodic table is located in a family of actinides. Widely used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons, nuclear fuel for civilian nuclear reactors and research purposes and as an energy source for spacecraft.
Plutonium is often used in nuclear bombs. The historical fact is dumping nuclear bomb on Nagasaki in 1945, the United States. The bomb, dropped on the city, contained a 6.2 kg of plutonium. Output was 21 kiloton explosion.
6TH PLACE. Pain. 9000 dollars for a gram or $ 1,800 per carat. This stone is so rare, that's about it, few have heard. However, the world's gem rarity and beauty are not equivalent concepts. Pain is a mineral orange or reddish-brown in color (brown color due to iron content). The stone was discovered in Burma in the mid-1950s. and has since been considered the rarest gemstone in the world, because there were only two crystal painita. Not so long ago it was discovered deposits of natural painitov, and now in the world there are hundreds of crystals.
5th place. Taffeit. The cost varies from 2.5 to 20 thousand dollars per gram or 500 to four thousand dollars per carat. Jewel of lavender is said to be a million times rarer than diamonds. Due to extreme rarity is only used as a gemstone.
4 seats. Tritium. Cost: $ 30 thousand per gram. The production of one kilogram of tritium costs 30 million dollars. It is used in light sources, like tritium illumination.
3rd place. Diamonds. Price: 55 000 dollars per gram. Colorless stones can cost more than 11 thousand dollars per carat, but colored diamonds are much more expensive. Diamond (from Fr. Brillant - brilliant) - diamond, which means given a special form of treatment, as revealed its natural luster. Diamonds are evaluated according to the "four C»: cut (cut), clarity (clarity), color (color) and carat (weight in carats), which allows you to determine whether the stone is close to perfection.
The most common for today are round brilliants from 17 and 57 faces. For small diamonds weighing not more than 0.03 carat, along with 57 facets cut faceting applied to 17 facets. Apply in 57 cutting edges have started in the XVII century, but only at the beginning of the XX century with the help of theoretical calculations that take into account all the physical and optical characteristics of diamond, were derived ideal proportions cut, allowing to achieve maximum brightness and maximum play of light within the stone. This became known facet of the present or perfect, it at the top of the diamond has 33 and 24 on the lower face.
2nd PLACE. California 252. Cost: $ 27 million per gram. For an element that is so expensive to produce, the isotopes of californium does not have any practical application. In the West it was created only once since its opening in 1950.
1st PLACE. Antimatter. Cost: 62.5 trillion dollars per gram. Antimatter is known as the most expensive substance on Earth, according to NASA in 2006, the production of milligrams of positrons was worth about 25 million U.S. dollars. According to the 1999, one gram of antihydrogen would be worth 62.5 trillion. According to CERN in 2001, the production of a billionth of a gram of antimatter (the amount used in the CERN collisions of particles and antiparticles in ten years) was worth several hundred million Swiss francs. Antimatter in the future, it is theoretically possible to use as a fuel for the spacecraft to other planets. The problem is that its production is incredibly expensive technologies are required, and to create just 1 gram, the world would have to work a whole year (global GDP is 65 trillion. Dollars).